Great Plains Tribal Chairman's Association

Treaties Page of the GPTCA

View all treaties of the16 Tribes that make up the Great Plains Tribal Chairman's Association
FORT LARAMIE TREATY, 1851 AND 1868

In 1851, one of the most important treaties was signed at Fort Laramie in present-day Wyoming. The treaty council was attended by thousands of Indians from several different tribes. The Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1851 defined boundaries between Indian tribes of the northern Great Plains. The tribes that signed the treaty in 1851 agreed to

 

–allow travelers, railroad surveyors, and construction workers to enter tribal lands safely;

–allow the government to establish posts and roads;

–pay for any wrongdoing of their people;

–select head chiefs to deal with U.S. government agents;

–cease fighting with other tribes.

 

The United States had to

–protect Indians from U.S. citizens;

–deliver annuities if the terms of the treaty were upheld.

 

The Treaty of 1851 had several problems. There were not enough interpreters to be sure that every tribe had a full understanding of the treaty which was written in English. Another problem was that the government was accustomed to making decisions through elected representatives. Western Indian tribes made decisions when all of the people agreed (consensus). These two traditions clashed. The tribes agreed to appoint chiefs who signed the document, but they could not control the people who were not part of the decisions. A more important problem was that the terms of the treaty were broken by U. S. citizens, the government, and the tribes.

 

Over the next several years, the treaty faced new challenges. The Civil War had ended. The Union Pacific Railroad was under construction. Gold had been found in Montana and Colorado. There were many more people traveling west through the Great Plains. The increase in travel led to increase in conflict. Some of the conflict was centered on the Bozeman Trail in Wyoming that ran right through Sioux treaty lands toward the gold fields of Montana. Red Cloud, an Oglala Lakota, declared that he would continue to make war on travelers and Army posts until the government closed the road and removed the Army.

 

The Army also established military posts in Sioux treaty lands. Fort Rice and Fort Buford on the Upper Missouri River were on or near treaty lands. Sitting Bull, Gall, and other Hunkpapas continually harassed these posts and demanded that the posts be removed.

 

Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868

The government sent agents to discuss a new treaty with the Great Sioux Nation in 1868. In Wyoming, the lands were called “unceded,” meaning that the Sioux claimed and controlled the area, but it was not part of the lands granted by the government to the Sioux tribes. This map shows the presence of forts which border the eastern edge of Sioux treaty lands. However, the Sioux had focused attacks on Fort Phil Kearney in Wyoming, forcing the government to abandon the post under the terms of this treaty.

 

In 1868, a treaty commission again met at Fort Laramie. The U. S. agents at the council came with a new federal policy that focused on placing all tribes on reservations. The Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1868 established the Great Sioux Reservation which included the sacred Black Hills.  Annuities (payments) of food and clothing were to be delivered to Indians living on the reservation. The government promised to close the Bozeman trail and the forts along the trail. According to the agreement, the treaty had to be signed by three-fourths (3/4 or .75 percent) of the males of the tribes. Many bands of Lakota Sioux agreed to the treaty. Some of them were already living within the boundaries of the Great Sioux Reservation. Others, such as Two Bears and his band, lived nearby and cooperated with the agents, though they did not move onto the reservation.

 

However, many did not sign the treaty. Sitting Bull and his band of Hunkpapas were among those who did not sign the treaty. The government considered the Hunkpapas dangerous because they refused to live on a reservation and continued to hunt north of the reservation.

 

Six years later, in 1874, gold was found in the Black Hills. Though the government offered to buy the land, the Sioux tribes refused the offer. The Black Hills were sacred to the Sioux and they would not sell. The Army did not prevent gold miners from entering the Black Hills. The federal government then demanded that all the Sioux report to the reservation. Sitting Bull and his band refused. More conflict followed. Treaties which were meant to bring peace led directly to more conflict.

TREATY OF 1851 TREATY OF 1868

Collection of Treaties

NORTH DAKOTA

SOUTH DAKOTA

NEBRASKA

TREATIES OF THE TURTLE MOUNTAIN BAND OF CHIPPEWA

The treaties include the Sweet Corn Treaty of 1858 and the Old Crossing Treaty of 1863. The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa history also talks about the Red River Uprising, the 1855 Resistance, the McCumber Agreement, and the Little Shell Protest of 1892.

view information on the Old Crossing Treaty now

THE FT. LARAMIE TREATY OF 1851 (INCLUDES THE MHA NATION)

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed on September 17 between United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations. The treaty sets forth traditional territorial claims of the tribes as among themselves. The Native Americans guaranteed safe passage for settlers on the Oregon Trail in return for promises of an annuity in the amount of fifty thousand dollars for fifty years. The Native American nations also allowed roads and forts to be built in their territories.

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TREATY INVOLVING THE SPIRIT LAKE TRIBE

The Dakota of Spirit Lake in North Dakota comprise two of the Bands of the Eastern Dakota: the Wahpeton, the Dwellers Among the Leaves and the Sisseton, the People of the Ridged Fish Scales. Other Dakotas include the Wahpekute, the Shooters Among the Leaves and the Mdewakanton, the Dwellers Among the Spirit Lake (Mille Lacs Lake). Kappler calls these the Sioux of the Leaf; the Broad Leaf, and those who shoot in the Pine Tops.

 

The Sissiton and Warpeton bands of Dakota Sioux Indians, represented in council, will continue their friendly relations with the Government and people of the United States, and bind themselves individually and collectively to use their influence to the extent of their ability to prevent other bands of Dakota or other adjacent tribes from making hostile demonstrations against the Government or people of the United States.

read more about the history and culture Spirit Lake Tribe here

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TREATY WITH THE SIOUX-- BRULÉ, OGLALA, MINICONJOU, YANKTONAI, HUNKPAPA, BLACKFEET, CUTHEAD, TWO KETTLE, SANS ARCS, AND SANTEE--AND ARAPAHO

From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall forever cease. The Government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.

 

If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington City, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also re-imburse the injured person for the loss sustained.

 

If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof made to their agent and notice by him, deliver up the wrong-doer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws; and in case they wilfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be re-imbursed for his loss from the annuities or other moneys due or to become due to them under this or other treaties made with the United States. And the President, on advising with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in his judgment may be proper. But no one sustaining loss while violating the provisions of this treaty or the laws of the United States shall be re-imbursed therefor.

read the Ft. Lamarie Treaty of 1868 now

TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE 1851

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed on September 17 between United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations. The treaty sets forth traditional territorial claims of the tribes as among themselves.[1] The Native Americans guaranteed safe passage for settlers on the Oregon Trail in return for promises of an annuity in the amount of fifty thousand dollars for fifty years. The Native American nations also allowed roads and forts to be built in their territories.

 

Background

Although many European and European-American migrants to western North America had previously passed through the Great Plains on the Oregon and Santa Fe Trails, the California gold rush greatly increased traffic. The United States government undertook negotiations with the Native American Plains tribes living between the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers to ensure protected right-of-way for the migrants. The United States Senate ratified the treaty, adding Article 5, to adjust compensation from fifty to ten years, if the tribes accepted the changes. Acceptance from all tribes, with the exception of the Crow, was procured. Several tribes never received the commodities promised as payments. The treaty produced a brief period of peace, but it was broken by the failure of the United States to prevent the mass emigration of settlers and miners during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush into the territories of the native nations as identified. The US government chose not to enforce the treaty to keep out the emigrants, although its economic wealth certainly allowed it to do so.

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TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE 1868

The Treaty of Fort Laramie (also called the Sioux Treaty of 1868) was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota, and Arapaho Nation signed on April 29, 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites. The treaty ended Red Cloud's War.

 

In the treaty, the U.S. included all Ponca lands in the Great Sioux Reservation. Conflict between the Ponca and the Sioux/Lakota, who now claimed the land as their own by U.S. law, forced the U.S. to remove the Ponca from their own ancestral lands in Nebraska to land in Oklahoma that was less conducive to the needs of the Ponca.

 

The treaty includes an article intended to "ensure the civilization" of the Lakota, financial incentives for them to farm land and become competitive, and stipulations that minors should be provided with an "English education" at a "mission building." To this end the U.S. government included in the treaty that white teachers, blacksmiths, a farmer, a miller, a carpenter, an engineer and a government agent should take up residence within the reservation. One of the most famed "mission building" schools from this provision was the Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Chief Manuelito sent his sons to this school, believing that it would help them eventually protect their freedoms. Repeated violations of the otherwise exclusive rights to the land by gold prospectors led to the Black Hills War. Migrant workers seeking gold had crossed the reservation borders, in violation of the treaty. Indians had assaulted these gold prospectors, in violation of the treaty, and war ensued. The U.S. government seized the Black Hills land in 1877.

 

More than a century later, the Sioux nation won a victory in court. On June 30, 1980, in United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, the United States Supreme Court upheld an award of $15.5 million for the market value of the land in 1877, along with 103 years worth of interest at 5 percent, for an additional $105 million. The Lakota Sioux, however, refused to accept payment and instead demanded the return of their territory from the United States.

 

In more recent proceedings the U.S. Courts have seen that some of the monies associated with the claim have been expended and, as such, claim that the agreement is valid. In fact, several thousand tribal members have filed for and are awaiting for a final decision by the Court to decide to issue the resources to tribal members.

 

The treaty and its aftermath is the subject of a 1986 video by the Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium.

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TREATY WITH THE OMAHA 1865

The Omaha tribe of Indians do hereby cede, sell, and convey to the United States a tract of land from the north side of their present reservation, defined and bounded as follows, viz: commencing at a point on the Missouri River four miles due south from the north boundary line of said reservation, thence west ten miles, thence south four miles, thence west to the western boundary line of the reservation, thence north to the northern boundary line, thence east to the Missouri River, and thence south along the river to the place of beginning; and that the said Omaha tribe of Indians will vacate and give possession of the lands ceded by this treaty immediately after its ratification: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to include any of the lands upon which the said Omaha tribe of Indians have now improvements, or any land or improvements belonging to, connected with, or used for the benefit of the Missouri school now in existence upon the Omaha reservation.

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TREATY WITH THE PONCA 1865

The Ponca tribe of Indians hereby cede and relinquish to the United States all that portion of their present reservation as described in the first article of the treaty of March 12th, 1858, lying west of the range line between townships numbers (32) thirty-two and (33) thirty-three north, ranges (10) ten and (11) eleven west of the (6) sixth principal meridian, according to the Kansas and Nebraska survey; estimated to contain thirty thousand acres, be the same more or less.

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TREATY WITH THE WINNEBAGO 1855

The Winnebago Indians hereby cede, sell, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in, and to, the tract of land granted to them pursuant to the third article of the treaty concluded with said tribe, at Washington City, on the thirteenth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, lying north of St. Peter's River and west of the Mississippi River, in the Territory of Minnesota, and estimated to contain about eight hundred and ninety-seven thousand and nine hundred (897,900) acres; the boundary-lines of which are thus described, in the second article of the treaty concluded between the United States and the Chippewa Indians of the Mississippi and Lake Superior, on the second day of August, one thousand eight hundred and forty seven, viz: “Beginning at the junction of the Crow

view this treaty with the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska now

TREATY WITH THE SIOUX—BRULÉ, OGLALA, MINICONJOU, YANKTONAI, HUNKPAPA, BLACKFEET, CUTHEAD, TWO KETTLE, SANS ARCS, AND SANTEE—AND ARAPAHO, 1868

From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall forever cease. The Government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.

 

If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington City, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also re-imburse the injured person for the loss sustained.

 

If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black, or Indians, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof made to their agent and notice by him, deliver up the wrong-doer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws; and in case they wilfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be re-imbursed for his loss from the annuities or other moneys due or to become due to them under this or other treaties made with the United States. And the President, on advising with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in his judgment may be proper. But no one sustaining loss while violating the provisions of this treaty or the laws of the United States shall be re-imbursed therefor.

view this treaty that includes the Santee Sioux Tribe now

References

–external links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fort_Laramie_(1851)

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fort_Laramie_(1868)

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/ftlaram.htm

http://omaha-nsn.gov/tribe/tribal-law/

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/win0690.htm

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/pon0875.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Old_Crossing

http://www.ndstudies.org/resources/IndianStudies/turtlemountain/historical_treaties1.html

http://library.ndsu.edu/exhibits/text/chippewa.html

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm

http://www.nd.gov/indianaffairs/image/cache/History_and_Culture_Spirit_Lake.pdf

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0956.htm

http://standingrock.org/fort-laramie-treaty/

http://ndstudies.gov/gr8/content/unit-iii-waves-development-1861-1920/lesson-4-alliances-and-conflicts/topic-2-sitting-bulls-people/section-3-treaties-fort-laramie-1851-1868

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